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|제목||[KRIHS SPECIAL REPORT 37] Development Cooperation between South Korea and Latin America for Urban Management|
|연구진||Soyoung Lee Jiyoon Yoon Heeyoun You|
|보고서번호||Special Report 37||발행일||20170630|
in the 20th century, latin america and the caribbean region (lac) experienced rapid urbanization that raised the region’s urbanization rate to nearly 80%, about twice that of asia and africa. a combined 6.8 millon people in lac migrated from rural to urban areas every year, and this trend boosted the number of not only megacities but also small and mid-size cities in the region. such rapid urbanizrtion caused diverse urban challenges such as the growth of slums, heavy traffic con gestion, housing shortage, and low quality of infrastructure. many lac countries, lacked adequate regulatory frameworks and planning systems to effectively respond to urban problems caused by the rapid urbanization.
korea in the 1970s and 1980s experienced fast and sustained economic growth, urbanization, and most of the urban problems many developing countries now face in their development stage. hence many developing countries are greatly interested in learning from korea’s development model. korea has a crucial task is to share korea’s knowhow to contribute to international development.
the overall ive of this study is to analyze the characteristics and challenges of urbanization in lac countries and propose promising areas and measures in development cooperation between korea and lac countries. most lac countries have shown high urbanization rates and high urban primacy, but several of them have failed to achieve economic growth proportional to their high urbanization rates.
chapter ⅱ diagnoses the main urban issues that 17 lac countries are facing by using 12 indicators in four areas; residential environment, inclusive development, transportation and infrastructure, and environmental sustainability. the analysis of the indicators and urbanization rates of 17 lac countries have led to the identification of four types of countries and three priority partner countries: colombia, mexico, and paraguay
chapter ⅲ analyzes the urbanization trends and the main urban challenges of the three priority countries according to the following four categories: ⅰ) residential environment : qualitative housing deficit and informal housing; ⅱ) inclusive development: regional inequality, income disparity, and development gap between urban and rural areas: ⅲ) transportation and infrastructure: low quality of public transit systems in megacity regions and heavy traffic congestion; and ⅳ) environmental sustainability: air and water pollution, disaster adaptation and mitigation, and urban sprawl. the three main causes of urban challenges are also identified: the lack of adequate integrated planning, legal and regulatory framework, and financial resources.
chapter ⅳ presents strategic ives and areas and implementation strategies for cooperation between korea and each of the three target lac countries. mexico urgently needs to set up an integrated public transport system and a transit system for metropolitan areas and proper governance to manage both systems. also critical is the formulation and updating of land use planning to efficiently manage urban sprawl in megacities. colombia must facilitate public financing and private investment to promote projects for urban transportation infrastructure, and korea’s extensive experience in this sector can serve as a good precedent. improvement of informal housing settlements in urban areas and low-income housing should be a strategic area of collaboration. paraguay should devise a master plan and legal and regulatory framework to manage the asuncion metropolitan area and prevent further urban sprawl, as well as a master plan for flood-prone areas in asuncion to improve housing and prevent damages from natural disasters.
to facilitate deeper development cooperation between korea and lac countries, understanding the three lac countries’ conditions and their main challenges is vital, in addition to developing a cooperative agenda tailored for each nation. another productive approach would be to develop tripartite cooperation among korea, a middle income lac country, and a low-income lac nation to transmit knowledge more efficiently.
this research took a great leap from taking an usual one-sided transfer of korean experiences to drawing viable cooperation projects by employing partner countries’ context. this research also proposed a diagnostic assessment tool for analysis on urban conditions which also could be applied to research for other countries. through this study, it created the data for indicators diagnosing urban conditions and for urban challenges in three lac countries. once the supplements are given to upgrade the details of the data. it is recommended to conduct even deeper analysis on each specific topic to initiate more viable international cooperation projects.